Monday, May 25, 2020

Performance Enhancing Drugs Affects on Athletes Essay

The topic for my stakeholder research paper is performance enhancing drugs. My research is the affects of performance enhancing drugs on athletes and how it affects society. The stakeholders for the research paper are the professional athlete, the college athlete, governing bodies and the fan. The effects of drug use on the professional athlete can cost them their career and also their lives. The college athlete wants to become the fastest or the biggest and nevertheless don’t view performance enhancing drugs as dangerous. Sports governing bodies in the United States have taken action towards controlling the use of performance enhancing drugs. However there is the fan that will still idolize the top athletes even though they use†¦show more content†¦I found the research on EBSCO host. He reflects on how performance enhancing drugs affected him and a lot of people in his life. In addition to his use of performance enhancing drugs, he blames his deadly disease of cancer on the drugs. Stakeholder #2 is the college athlete and my research came from Sport Illustrated article â€Å"The Nightmare of Steroids† written by Tommy Chaikin and Rick Telander. The research was found on EBSCO host. The article is about how performance enhancing drugs told over a college athlete’s life by driving him to violence and almost too committing suicide. The governing body of college football The National Collegiate Athletic Association is stakeholder #3. The article I used is â€Å"N.C.A.A Stiffens Drug Penalties and Expands Testing in Football† written by William C. Rhoden from the New York Times. This research was found on EBSCO host. The article deals with why drug penalties and expanding testing had to be made in football. The year round testing is being tried in football first then will process to other college sports. Football was chosen first for the year round drug testing because of the prominent coverage of performance enhancing drugs being used in football. Finally something needed to be done because of the threat to the athlete and fair play in sports from the use of performance enhancing drugs. The fan is stakeholder #4 and I got research from two articles one is â€Å"Steroid SuspicionsShow MoreRelatedShould Athletes Be Stripped Of Their Titles And Medals For Using Sports Enhancing Drugs?1497 Words   |  6 PagesShould athletes be stripped of their titles and medals for using sports-enhancing drugs? Do sports-enhancing drugs actually improve the athlete’s natural abilities to the extent where their abilities are no longer natural? These are the controversial questions that stem from athletes involved with sports-enhancing drugs. Substances that improve the performance of an athlete are classified as an enhancing drug. Anabolic steroids, human growth hormones, and even diuretics are some commonly used sports-enhancingRead MoreEssay about Consequences of Performance Enhancing Drugs15 09 Words   |  7 PagesNegative Effects to Performance Enhancing Drugs At the age of 21 Rob Garibaldi committed suicide and it is believed to be from his consumption of performance enhancing drugs. As a young boy, Rob started to play little league, trying to match his favorite sport hero, and dreaming to make it to the baseball major leagues. Prior to high school, Rob was getting pushed by his coaches he had and scouts start to follow him to have him take supplements and more things that will help him gain weight compoundsRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs. . Performance-Enhancing Drugs1580 Words   |  7 PagesPerformance Enhancing Drugs Performance-enhancing drugs (PED s) have been an issue for many decades now for the medical and sports field. Olympic and professional athletes have been using them to gain an upper hand on the competition, but some may ask if it s really worth it? Studies show that performance-enhancing drugs have been proven to negatively affect the health of athletes who take them. Simply put, performance-enhancing drugs could either improve athletic performance or can be extremelyRead MoreDoping And Performance Enhancing Drugs1262 Words   |  6 PagesAlex Rodriguez; all great athletes who have had their reputations tarnished by using performance enhancing drugs (sometimes shortened to PEDs). In his interview with Opera Winfrey, Armstrong stated that â€Å"I didn t view [doping] [as cheating]. I viewed it as a level playing field† (Lance). With this statement, Armstrong is declaring that many professional cyclists and other professional athletes engage in illegal doping in order to impro ve their performances. These drugs can be useful for their abilityRead MorePED in Sports Essay1644 Words   |  7 Pages PED in Sports Performance enhancing drugs have been a longstanding problem in sports. It not only deteriorates the honesty of the game, but also can have broader social affects that one may not even realize. The use of performance enhancing drugs is especially apparent in Major League Baseball. This problem can be traced back to the 1980’s when baseball was facing one of its first â€Å"dark periods†. During the 1980’s Major League Baseball was experiencing a home run drought. Home run totals wereRead MoreLance Armstrong Role Model In Sport1708 Words   |  7 Pagesrole model of many athletes to never give up to be amazing at something, no matter what comes in the way of it. Unfortunately, the legacy of Armstrong was short lived after the discovery of Armstrong taking performance enhancing drugs to win all seven of the Tour De France. The cyclist was voided of all seven of the titles and was not allowed back into the olympics. Somebody who was such a role model was found out to be such a scandal. This is why it is very important for athletes to choose carefullyRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs in Sports1686 Words   |  7 PagesPerformance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Athletes use performance enhancing drugs to boost their game. The professionals who use these drugs are ruining the integrity of the game. Many people don’t understand why professional athletes would go to such extreme measures to be better when they have already proven themselves. Athletes are just taking away from their natural ability by using these dangerous drugs. The risk of using performance enhancing drugs is a lot greater than the reward, because anRead MoreElite Athletes and Performance Enhancing Drugs1817 Words   |  7 PagesElite Athletes: An Asset or Liability to Sports? Many elite athletes are under great pressure to perform exceptionally well they often times resort to using performance-enhancing drugs to stay competitive. The path to success as an athlete is not an easy track; it is fierce! The fame and the fortune one can attain from being an athlete is only unimaginable to some; it is something worth going the extra mile to reach, for some, there is no limit to the extra mile. After all, in today’s society theRead MoreDoping is not Dope in Athletics664 Words   |  3 PagesDoping is Not Dope Should athletes be able to use performing enhancement drugs. Many athletes are trying to get a competitive edge on their competition and some start by taking performing enhancement drugs, even though taking them could be devastating and detriment to them personally. Using performance enhancing drugs comes with many risks physically and emotionally. Performance enhancing drugs is as known as â€Å"doping†. There are many kinds of steroids such as anabolic steroids, humanRead MoreEssay about The Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs1425 Words   |  6 Pagesmentally addicting. Now Im sick, and Im scared. Ninety percent of the athletes I know are on the stuff. Were not born to be 300 lbs or jump 30ft. But all the time I was taking steroids, I knew they were making me play better.† Lyle Alzado, American footballer. This is just one of many athletes who have took performance enhancing drugs in the past and have lived to regret it. Never before has there been so much help for athletes. Today technology, coaches and equipment has never been better. However

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Mary Shelleys Frankenstein - 1966 Words

The novel Frankenstein is as relevant and terrifying today as it was when it was first Published in 1818. Explain how Mary Shelly makes her narrative effective and why it has fascinated And shocked audiences for nearly 190 years! Focus on Chapter 5, but refer to the novel as a whole. Mary Shelley was born on August 30th, 1797, in London. Her parents were two free thinkers of this era. Her father, William Godwin, was a celebrated philosopher and historian. Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary’s mother was every bit as much a radical thinker as Godwin. She believed strongly in women’s rights. Mary was brought up as an individual and encouraged by her parents to be a free thinker. Both her parents thought that her potential as a writer could be†¦show more content†¦Percy drowned when Mary was 24 leaving her with small children. At one time in her life she nearly committed suicide, and this is reflected in the book. The book had a sub title - The Modern Prometheus, referring to the Greek god who gave human beings the secret of fire, (an element that previously belonged only to the gods) and just as Prometheus was punished for trying to make human beings like gods, chained to a rock, endlessly disembowelled by a ravaging eagle, Frankenstein, who attempts to make himself a god by creating a new kind of man, finds himself emotionally tortured, not by god, but by his own monstrous invention as it systematically destroys everyone he loves. Chapter 5 begins with a description of the weather – it is a ‘dreary night,’ the rain ‘pattered dismally’ and this immediately sets the scene. Frankenstein is about to bring his creation to life and is dreading the meeting. Mary Shelly makes the description of the weather fit his mood. When the creature does come to life Victor talks of it as a ‘catastrophe’. He describes the creature on one hand as being ‘beautiful’, with ‘lustrous black hair’ and ‘pearly white teeth’ but also with ‘horrid,’ ‘yellow skin’ and ‘watery eyes’ in ‘dun-white sockets’. Using contrasts in this way Mary Shelly helps the reader to create a more detailed picture of the creature in their minds. Victor’s creation is grotesque and a long way from the scientific triumph he had wanted – ‘now that I had finished, the beauty ofShow MoreRelatedMary Shelleys Frankenstein1689 Words   |  7 PagesGreat Expectations Fathers and Son, Frankenstein. The novel I have chosen to discuss is Frankenstein. Written in 1818 by Mary Shelley, Frankenstein is classified as a gothic novel, however, Shelly uses both realist and non-realist techniques. I will be looking at her reasons for writing the novel and what influenced her, as well as the realist and non-realist techniques used. I will be looking at some of the contemporary social issues that affected Shelley’s life at the time she wrote her novelRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein1179 Words   |  5 Pagesbecome determined to perfect at what they do. They eventually become tragically doomed through creating their own individual moral codes by struggling with their internal battles within their minds. Mary Shelley presents us the first persona of a romantic hero through Victor Frankenstein in her book Frankenstein. Shelley fabricates Victor as the main narrator throughout the book, along with Captain Walton and the creature, which Victor creates. Another hero during the Romant ic era is the Ancient MarinerRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Feminism1429 Words   |  6 PagesRobert Youshock Prof. Matthew Gerber HIST 1012 10/19/18 Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: Feminism before it was mainstream? Writing a paper on the topic of Frankenstein days before Halloween might give you the wrong idea- lets clear something up straight away Frankenstein is the doctor not the monster and the monster doesn’t have a name (which we later learn is mildly important to the story). You see, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is arguably a story of creation, murder, love, and learning amongst manyRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay929 Words   |  4 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein The characterization of Victor’s creature, the monster, in the movie although somewhat dramatically different from Mary Shelley’s portrayal in the novel Frankenstein also had its similarities. Shelley’s views of the monster were to make him seem like a human being, while the movie made the monster out to be a hideous creation. The creature’s appearance and personality are two aspects that differ between the novel and movie while his intellectual and tender sidesRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay1312 Words   |  6 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein In order to illustrate the main theme of her novel â€Å"Frankenstein†, Mary Shelly draws strongly on the myth of Prometheus, as the subtitle The Modern Prometheus indicates. Maurice Hindle, in his critical study of the novel, suggests, â€Å"the primary theme of Frankenstein is what happens to human sympathies and relationships when men seek obsessively to satisfy their Promethean longings to â€Å"conquer the unknown† - supposedly in the service of their fellow-humans†. ThisRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein Nineteen-year-old Mary Shelley didn’t know when she began it that her â€Å"ghost story† would become an enduring part of classic literature. Frankenstein is an admirable work simply for its captivating plot. To the careful reader, however, Shelley’s tale offers complex insights into human experience. The reader identifies with all of the major characters and is left to heed or ignore the cautions that their situations provide. Shelley uses the second person narrativeRead MoreEssay on Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1643 Words   |  7 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein In 1818 a novel was written that tingled people’s minds and thrilled literary critics alike. Frankenstein was an instant success and sold more copies than any book had before. The immediate success of the book can be attributed to the spine-tingling horror of the plot, and the strong embedded ethical message. Although her name did not come originally attached to the text, Mary Shelley had written a masterpiece that would live on for centuries. Read MoreEvil in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1462 Words   |  6 PagesMary Shelleys Frankenstein is very much a commentary on the Enlightenment and its failure to tame the human condition through reason. The human condition can be defined as the unique features which mold a human being. The creature is undoubtedly a victim of this predicament. He grapples with the meaning of life, the search for gratification, the sense of curiosity, the inevitability of isolation, and the awareness of the inescapability of death. These qualities and his ceaseless stalking of hisRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay1086 Words   |  5 Pages Mary Shelley wrote the book Frankenstein sometime in the 1810s. She was born in London in 1797 (Biography). Her mother was an author of prime literary stock who was trying to encourage women to pursue their ideas and strive to earn the status as equals. The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions that were taking place around Mary Shelley certainly influ enced her while she was writing the book. The creation of machines and experiments at the time made people wonder what the limit of human technologyRead MoreMary Shelleys Frankenstein Essay846 Words   |  4 Pages Shelley’s Frankenstein does an excellent job at demonstrating the ideas and accomplishments of the enlightenment period. Shelly expresses these ideas and thoughts through the character of Victor Frankenstein who is an aspiring scientist seeking an intellectual challenge. Victor Frankenstein live s his hometown of Geneva and leaves in quest of a valued education in Ingolstadt. When Victor arrives at college he is lonely and finds himself in a new world in which he lives by himself. He than meets

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Describe the Strategic Challenges Facing Apple Computer

Apple Computer, Inc. Frances Woodyard Jacinta Acquay BUS 499 - Business Administration Capstone 1/29/2012 Describe the strategic challenges facing Apple Computer. The fast pace of technological change and competition are the challenges that Apple Computer is facing. Its strategic moves into communication devices and portable devices for downloading music and movies the company is in stiff competition from all venues. With no entry barrier in this business Apple has competitors, with lower priced imitation products which will threaten to lessen the value of Apple products and its strategy success (Hitt, M., Ireland, R., Hoskisson, R., 2011). Apple faces many challenges to maintain its core competencies: marketing, innovation,†¦show more content†¦Retention of customers is also a sign off success (Richardson, M., nd). .Communicate with the business’s customers using either an online survey or mailing one to the home or business. The results of this survey will provide insight into how satisfied the customer is with the products and services the company offers (Richards on, M., nd). It will also give valuable information on the customer’s needs, and their opinion on the company overall. In the end a golden opportunity will await to increase the customer’s satisfaction. Employees need to be communicated with to check their level of job satisfaction. If the business is to be successful they need to have satisfied employees. With satisfied employees the company will reap the benefits of a more dedicated, enthusiastic and more productive work force. Management should reward their employees with bonuses and incentives and a thank you for a job well done (Richardson, M., nd). . Be on the lookout for new products and services for their customers. It does not have to be a brand new product, it could be as simple as improving an already offered product. Introducing new products and services is a sure sign of growth and success (Richardson, M., nd). Describe the critical external and internal environmental factors that have strategic implications for Apple’s future. Globalization is something that Apple has to do to continue to succeed and keep the number oneShow MoreRelatedApple - Describe the Key Strategic Challenges Facing Apple Computer1245 Words   |  5 PagesAyomipo Burch Williams Loelius Strategic Management Concepts amp; Cases 07/22/2011 * Describe the key strategic challenges facing Apple Computer. * One of Apple biggest key issue will be the rate that technology is growing and the ability to keep up with and also the prices at which there products are sold for; they are face with constant new arrivals at prices that are more affordable especially in today’s economy where everybody is looking for ways to save money. They areRead MoreApple Inc.1194 Words   |  5 PagesApple Computer Inc. Strayer University Bus 499 January 29, 2012 Professor Erica Atkins Abstract This paper describes the key strategic challenges facing Apple Computer. This paper will also describe the dimensions along which company success can be measured. We will also describe the critical external and internal environmental factors that have strategic implications for Apple’s future. This paper will further explain how Apple’s strategy stands up against industry rivalry. In closing we willRead MoreThe Key Strategic Challenges Facing Apple Computer1162 Words   |  5 PagesDescribe the key strategic challenges facing Apple Computer Apple Computer is currently facing many strategic challenges, the first challenge is competition from new and existing companies. Apple’s iTunes, an online music store, faces competition from companies that seek to begin offering online music and video downloading services whether legally or illegally, and from existing companies that plan to modify its current strategies to become better aligned with the strategy of Apple. Many of Apple’sRead MoreApple Computer, Inc Case Study 141554 Words   |  7 PagesApple Computer, Inc case study 14 Apple has created a unique and powerful reputation and product line that continues to be innovative and fresh to the consumer for the last 30 plus years. Apple has continued to be an industry leader for hardware and in the recent years faces the extremely fast-paced market of media and software products including the global marketplace. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths: * Having alliances with other strong and popular businesses is a major plus point for Apple ComputerRead MoreThe Growth Of Internet And Computer Technologies1290 Words   |  6 PagesQ1. The growth of Internet and computer technologies have created new opportunities to better serve the corporations and consumers. Describe 3 new technologies that have changed the ways people communicate or the ways companies conduct their business. ANS: New technologies offer services and products that otherwise would be too difficult, costly, or time-consuming and the Internet allows traditional competitors to introduce new products and services and lure customers away. It helps a lot in costRead MoreMarketing Plan of Apple Inc2585 Words   |  10 PagesSummary This paper comprehensively describes the marketing plan of a charismatic organization Apple Inc. The main focus of the paper is to describe the most important marketing strategies which Apple has espoused from the date of its emergence and different challenges which it has faced from time to time. The paper begins with an introduction to the organization. Apple Inc. is an American MNC; engaged in the business of developing and marketing of IT products. Apple has expanded its business operationsRead MoreApple Inc. Supply Chain Essay2996 Words   |  12 Pagesexecutive summary, i will introduce the ideas and details of Apple Incs supply chain in its current state. We will examine Apple’s strategy of being consumer based and evaluate the current state of business and some of the partnerships it has formed to remain one of the dominating forces in this industry. This report will cover a brief overview of the company, its current assortment of products it offers, future opportunities and threats that Apple may face, its current assortment of products it offersRead MoreWhat Driving Forces Are Affecting The Toy Industry?1252 Words   |  6 Pages1. Using Figure 2.3, describe the context facing Mattel. What driving forces are affecting the toy industry? Continual change, vanishing distance and compressed time is what is driving the toy industry. It mentions in the case study that Hasbro is failing to adapt by being unable to make timely strategic decisions. Hasbro has dedicated too much of their resources in the television and movie sector only to abandon their successful board gaming business. (Coulter, 2013, p. 49) Our text expresses allRead MoreDell Strategic Management Report3502 Words   |  15 Pagesassignment 2ï ¼Å¡ â€Å"Internal elements pose more potential risks to an organisation achieving its strategic objectives than external elements.† Dell is a multi-national information technology corporation which designs, develops, manufactures, markets, sells, and supports a range of computer systems and services that are customized to individual customer requirements. As one of global PC suppliers, Dell set 2 strategic objectives to achieve, to be the No.1 global market share PC supplier, and optimize theRead MoreAn Analysis of the Culture of Apple Inc. Essay3368 Words   |  14 Pagescorporate culture of the Apple Inc, a US-based consumer Electronics Company which creates, design, produce, path-breaking and world-changing electronic products and systems, including Macintosh line of computers, iPhone, Ipad and OS X operation system. The Apple store also provides hardware and software product for customers around the world. Established since 1976, Apple Inc. has become the largest technology computer in the world according to Apple’s (2011) website. The goals of Apple Inc. are all aim

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Observation Essay Example For Students

Observation Essay One afternoon I was sitting at a study table at the library quietly working on my Survey of World Religion homework. All of a sudden another college student slammed his books on to the table. After he placed his books loudly upon the table, he threw down his book bag on to the floor next to the chair. I glanced up at him with a look of disturbance upon my face. He left as quickly as he came, just to return again. I continued working on my homework until he blessed me with his prescent. The very first thing I noticed about the adolescent was his hat that sat on his head. There was a considerably large Nike symbol on the front of the pale green baseball cap. The coat that he wore was a vivid color of red and a bright yellow with blue trim. His very fluffy coat appeared to be well stuffed. After the brightly tri-colored coat was off, I noticed a hung colossal gold chain around his neck that swung to the left and the right. On his chain was a gold charm that was considerable large for a normal person. It appeared to me that the charm was an oversized dollar bill symbol. The necklace and the charm made a clanging noise every time he moved. The oversized purple fleece shirt that he was wearing looked very warm. The fleece had the word Tommy written extremely large in white bold print across the front of his purple colored fleece shirt and looked worn and tattered. The jeans that he decided to wear that day were also too large for him. The jeans that this college boy wore looked like both of his legs could have fit in just one of the jeans sleeves. Every thing that this boy put on his body seemed to me to be entirely large for his body size, which made him look a little on the goofy side. His physical characteristics reminded me of a high school junior. The student was approximately five foot nine inches tall and looked like he weighs almost two hundred pounds. He didnt look too thin, or too heavy. His hands were big and all of his fingernails were bitten down. His hair color was a golden blond with white highlights. His hair was very straight and hung right below his ears. His ears that stuck out from his baseball cap were too large for his head. It almost appears like he could take off in flight with his large ears. His eye color was a real pretty, bright blue. He also had long eyelashes and a blond una-brow that went across his forehead. His face was covered with little blond hairs that sporadically grew wherever they wanted. He had a very nice complexion without a blemish. His skin tone was very fair with a few freckles here and there. He had a very attractive smile. The behavior of this college student seemed to be a bit on the childish side. When he left the study table, he started to pace and stomp around the library looking for books. When he finally found the library books that he needed, he slammed them down on the table. When he pulled out the chair from under the table, he slapped his weight down upon the poor chair. When he was paging his way though one of the library books, I could feel the gentle breeze hitting my face. When he couldnt find what he was looking for in the first book, he sighed and slammed the book shut. He started glimpsing through the second book. The second book that he opened he didnt treat much differently. The Billion Dollar Man: Bill Gates Essay While the president was talking to the group, she used interaction cues by pointing to other members and telling them when to talk. She was doing the same towards the vice-president. The vice-president is always late or never shows up for the meeting. I think she could also be a social loafer because she did not talk much at the meeting and she just sat there listening to .

Friday, April 10, 2020

Mrázová and Celec

Table of Contents Introduction Reasons behind the use of Sound Therapy Sound Rhythm Different Levels of Appreciation Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The analysis of Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec explained that music/sound therapy can create a positive effect on an individual since it helps to calm their nerves and induce feelings of relaxation, peace and security. This is one of the reasons why music/sound therapy has become an increasingly popular method of addressing the problem of stress caused by environmental sounds.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it must be questioned what aspect of music/sound therapy actually contributes the most towards a better mental state. In certain cases it has been shown that the higher the decibel level of the ambient noise produced (applied through music/sound therapy or even through the general environment), th e greater the adverse impact on the human body. This means that just because a person plays loud music to counter the ambient environmental noise does not mean that this constitutes proper music/sound therapy. It is based on this that this study will examine two characteristics of music/sound therapy, namely sound and rhythm. This study assumes that sound, while an important component of musical therapy is supplanted in its level of importance by rhythm due to the ability of the latter to induce positive psychological reactions. Reasons behind the use of Sound Therapy From the point of view of Maguire, daily sounds associated with human activity (i.e. ranging from the sounds of ship engines, the noise heard during the construction of a nearby building or the general environmental noise brought about by cars) can cause an adverse reaction in the human body (Maguire 947-961). This is one of the reasons why the term â€Å"noise pollution† came into being within the past 40 years or so due to the effect that loud environmental sounds had on the human psyche and body. As a result, prolonged exposure resulted in a continued deterioration of an individual’s mental and physical health to the point that it can cause significant health problems in the future. The O’Callaghan study which attempted to examine the problems associated with noise pollution stated that some of the common symptoms of sound induced psychological stress come in the form of higher levels of stress hormones as well as an increase in the amount of headaches a person gets (O’Callaghan 779-788). It can also have an impact on the body creating issues with a person’s blood pressure, heart rate and has even been shown in the most extreme cases to cause strokes in the individuals that have been exposed to adverse environmental sounds (O’Callaghan 779-788).Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Psychological symptoms often come in the form of anger management issues, high stress as well as being agitated easily (O’Callaghan 779-788). This was evidenced by the study of Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec which noted similar symptoms in animals that were in areas with high concentrations of predators and had to be constantly on guard against threats. (Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec 1089-1095) Through such an analysis it can be assumed that if loud annoying environmental sounds can cause an adverse physiological and psychological reaction, then the reverse could also be true wherein soft, soothing sounds can create a positive physiological and psychological reaction (Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec 1089-1095). Sound Sound, within the context of music/sound therapy, is the backbone of the process wherein through the use of soft and melodious music; a person is invited to enter into a state of complete and utter peace. Depending on the type of sound utilized, ranging f rom sound waves, singing, violin playing and an assortment of other types of sources, sound can induce different kinds of internal psychological reactions in a person. The study of Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec, which examined the effect of sound waves on children, showed that when exposed to different types of sound, children were more likely to express different emotional states. It was determined that loud sounds often annoyed children while on the other hand soft and melodious sounds usually calmed them down. Not all sounds though are created equal in terms of their positive impact on a person’s psychological state. The music of Beethoven, Chopin, Mandel and other such composers supposedly help to calm the mind, however, the Abrams study stated that patients preferred the sound of gentle ocean waves, the soft strumming of a guitar or the sound of rain as a better method of relaxation (Abrams 114-119). The apparent basis behind these responses was explained by Abrams as being co nnected to the general rhythm and repetitiveness found in the sound of rain, ocean waves and the soft strumming of a guitar. Rhythm Rhythm, within the context of music/sound therapy, refers to the regulated movement of sound/music based on a series of successive strong and weak elements. In essence, rhythm refers to the way in which sound goes through a cycle of different beats, tempos and patterns to create a coordinated output. When applied to music therapy, various researchers such as Cutshall explain that proper rhythm applied in sound therapy induces a more therapeutic reaction as compared to merely exposing a person to an assortment of sounds (Cutshall 16-23).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What Cutshall is attempting to say is that the different types of rhythm evident in various types of sounds can create differing levels of psychological reaction s. This is one of the reasons why in the Abrams study the participants explained that they preferred the sound of rain, ocean waves and the soft strumming of a guitar as compared to the work of Beethoven, Chopin, Mandel and other such composers. It is the general repetitiveness of the rhythm evident in the aforementioned â€Å"nature sounds† that is more appealing to an individual as compared to the overly complex sounds evidently found in the music of Beethoven (Sekiya 1). This is not to say that any type of sound would work, rather, when it comes to music therapy soft sounds combined with an equally soft and steady repetitive rhythm seems to work better than overly complex music (Sekiya1). For example, the unique aspect of the song â€Å"Drifting† by Andy McKee is that even though he is merely using a simple string guitar he is able to derive a variety of different tones from a single instrument. There is no singing, no overly elaborate background music, no wailing, shouting, or cursing rather the entire song is the embodiment of simplicity with just one person plucking away at a single instrument. Yet, despite the utter lack of accompaniment the very texture of the song is vibrant, at times overwhelming yet calming. It distinguishes itself from other songs in that the melody is a combination of short plucking combined with idle strumming. It could be considered slightly repetitive due to the rhythmic quality of the plucking involved however this is accompanied by several incorporations of slight strumming which helps to break the repetitive quality of the plucking. It is this very repetitiveness that makes the song easy to remember and identifiable with a conjunctive motion that helps to develop its melodic quality and likeability. Doing a brief YouTube search of the song and merely listening to it is evidence enough of how simplicity in sound and repetitiveness in rhythm help to immediately calm a person down. Different Levels of Appreciation Before proceeding, it was determined that a brief overview should be done regarding the different types of musical appreciation out there and how this impacts the ability of a person to actually be affected by certain types of music therapy. First and foremost, different genres of music appeal to different listeners and different time periods in music appeal to fans from different time periods. Rock music was adopted by teenagers due to its apparent â€Å"shock value† to older generations due to the overtly sexual, anti-establishment and aggressive quality of the songs.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rock music was used as a means of distinction, a manner in which teenagers at the time defined themselves as being separate from the distinctions associated with older generations. As such, rock music composers followed this trend by composing songs in such a way so as to incorporate aggressiveness, anti-establishment and sexuality in the way the songs were sung or played. The reason rock music is mentioned is due to the fact that music created by Beethoven, Chopin and Mandel may not be as appreciated or liked by members of the current generation as compared to the previous generation (Rapoport, Eliezer and Blass 37-60). Thus, if such music is used in their music therapy sessions, it is unlikely that it would be as effective due to the lack of general appreciation the current generation would have towards the music (Rapoport, Eliezer and Blass 37-60). This particular piece of information helps to support the argument that focusing on rhythm instead of sound in music therapy is more important since sounds related to falling rain, ocean beaches and the light strumming of a guitar helps to cross the generational barrier resulting in more or less equal levels of appreciation. Conclusion The issue with high pitched, loud or otherwise annoying environmental sound has been determined by Maguire to be a form of stressor. This can be defined as an outside factor that impacts the ability of normal individuals to continue on with their daily tasks due to increased mental stress which can cause an adverse psychological and physiological reaction over the long term. The inherent problem with the modern day environment is that in most cases you cannot simply turn off the ambient environmental sounds off with a switch. The perceived physical and psychological reactions brought about by high levels of ambient environmental sound has been theorized as a holdover phenomenon from humanity’s evolution wherein perceived loud noises acted as an external trigger reaction towa rds a predatory presence. This is where sound therapy enters into the equation. Based on the findings of this study, it was shown that sound, while an important component of musical therapy is supplanted in its level of importance by rhythm due to the ability of the latter to induce positive psychological reactions. This shows that merely exposing a person to loud sound would be the same as noise pollution and, as such, music/sound therapy needs an appropriate rhythm to the music/sound that is being played to be effective. The reason why this examination was done was so that better processes in music/sound therapy can be created so as to improve the rate by which patients are helped. Works Cited Abrams, Brian. â€Å"Understanding music as a temporal-aesthetic way of being: implications for a general theory of music therapy.† Arts in Psychotherapy  38.2 (2011): 114-119. Print Cutshall, Susanne. â€Å"Effect of the combination of music and nature sounds on pain and anxiety i n cardiac surgical Patients.† Alternative Therapies in Health Medicine 17.4 (2011): 16-23. Print Maguire, Melissa. â€Å"Music and Epilepsy: A Critical Review.† Epilepsia 53.6 (2012): 947-961. Print Mrà ¡zovà ¡, Marcela, and Peter Celec. â€Å"A systematic review of randomized controlled trials using music therapy for children.† Journal of Alternative   Complementary Medicine 16.10 (2010): 1089-1095. Print O’Callaghan, Clare. â€Å"Music’s relevance for pediatric cancer patients: A constructivist and mosaic research approach.† Supportive Care in Cancer  19.6 (2011): 779-788. Print Rapoport, Eliezer, Smadar, Shatz, and Noa Blass. â€Å"Overtone spectra of gongs used in music therapy.† Journal of New Music Research 37.1 (2008): 37-60. Print Sekiya, Yoshimasa. â€Å"Using fractal music as sound therapy in TRT treatment.†Ã‚  Audiology Online (2013): 1. Print This essay on Mrà ¡zovà ¡ and Celec was written and submitted by user Bennett Carver to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

The Assumption and Limitation of CAPM Essay Example

The Assumption and Limitation of CAPM Essay Example The Assumption and Limitation of CAPM Paper The Assumption and Limitation of CAPM Paper There are numerous assumptions behind the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Firstly, every single investor aims at maximising the economic utility. In other words, investors make as much as money they can. Its because different investors have different preferences for the risk. Some would have preferences for a larger risk and some for a smaller risk. Therefore, the preference of investors for risk return would be taken in to account. The second assumption is that the investors would get all available information with no cost and no loss of time. In other words, information is available to all investors at the same time. If the information cannot be got at the same time by investors, different conclusions would be drawn. However, in fact, real markets contain information asymmetry, which means some people may get more information than others. Thirdly, the assumption is that there are no taxes or transaction costs. In reality, the composition of the optimum portfolio will be changed by taking taxes and transaction costs into account since both of them have an influence on real financial products. Last but not least, the assumption is that investors can borrow and lend unlimited money under the risk free rate of interests. Yet, in fact, every single investor has a credit limit. Thus, they cant borrow or lend money as much as they want. The assumptions are drawn because the CAPM cannot be worked efficiently and precisely without the assumptions. Limitation In CAPM, there are several limitations. Firstly, the risk free rate of return is hard to be estimate by CAPM under different economic environment. Secondly, the CAPM is impossible to be used for a project which last for more than one year as CAPM is a single period model. Firstly, investors cannot always foresee that return of assets precisely as its limitation. Its because all data about the share prices and the market portfolio investors have are past data. Therefore, to estimate the betas which are used to forecast future returns, investors can use the historical data only. It is acceptable that the future risk is measured based on historical beta if the betas are stable over time. However, the betas of individual securities are not stable over time, which has shown by researches. Thus, historical betas are not a good indicator of the future risk. Secondly, CAPM is based on unrealistic assumptions which are just mentioned above. In reality, it is hard to reach all assumptions. For example: the assumption of the equality of the lending and borrowing rates is not correct. In fact, the rates would be different or hard to be the same. Therefore, the market indices may not well vary or investors may not hold highly diversified portfolios. By these reasons, CAPM cannot explain the investment behavior of investors precisely and betas cannot capture the risk of investment. Thirdly, the risk free rate of return is hard to be estimate by CAPM under different economic environment and lastly the CAPM is impossible to be used for a project which last for more than one year as CAPM is a single period model. The Use of CAPM CAPM is used to look for explaining the relationship between risk and return in a rational equilibrium market. By doing that, there are many uses of CAPM. Firstly, investors can determine if the portfolio should be undertaken or not by analysing the CAPM. Secondly, it can give the idea for investors what decision they should make if the securitys risk versus expected return is plotted below or above the SML in the graph. For example: if a stock is plotted well below the SML, the investor should not buy it because the investor can get the higher expected return by investing half their money in Treasury bills and half in the market portfolio. Thirdly, in dividend valuation models, an asset is valued with the provision of an appropriate discount rate. Such valuation is obtained with the help from CAPM which indicates the expected or required rates of return on risky assets. Comparisons can be made between the two rates implied by CAPM with a result of over or under valuation. Thus, investors can determine the decision conveniently. Conclusion To conclude, Capital Asset Pricing Model is an easy and sensible theory which can explain the behavior of security profitability. It is very popular nowadays because this model is built on modern portfolio theory and it can distinguish between systematic risk and non-systematic risk easily. Therefore, people can understand and make the financial decision easily. However, CAPM is quite controversial in some circumstances because it is hard to recognize the market portfolio and the return and besides, betas are not easy to be estimated. Without the details of the return and betas, the decision of investors cannot be drawn easily or precisely. Therefore, sufficient information is needed in CAPM.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Mudering Mckinley Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Mudering Mckinley - Essay Example his longtime competitor William Jennings Bryan a year earlier before his death in 1901.His steadfastness in solving the crisis that the united States in the 1893 experienced earned him candidacy in Democrat and populist party in 1896.Strikes, riots, increased taxes and factories, closed. His presidency was so timely that he worked hard to safeguard the worsening situation such in a few weeks time; his achievements were identifiable. During his campaigns, though he did not move around looking for votes but allowed the citizens to visit him in his ohio state, he promised to restore prosperity. Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of United States of America became the president after the assassination of William McKinley in 1901. He was experienced in handling public services after serving in public offices as a governor of the New York and secretary of the Navy Department in McKinley’s first administration from his vast experience and rising political career in the New York. He fought for the freedom of Cuba from Spain in 1898 and together with Leonard Wood organized the rough Riders, which was the first U.S Calvary. The aftermath of the war left United States in the acquisition of Spanish empire and the Caribbean. Moreover, the United States gained protectorate over Cuba and gave it overseas possession dominance. Roosevelt was unique in his approach to progressive achievements as a leader. 1 Mckinley managed to win the presidency in March 1897. As promised, the factories were opened, workers returned to work and this earned him credit. Rauchway (2003) believes that in 1898, The United States became an international colonial empire. During the short war with Spain, the president had not wanted colonies; however, the German power would dare and despoil them. The president was so prayerful and at one time he confessed his prayers before he went to sleep. God’s presence was felt and in the next election, with his able running mate, Roosevelt Theodore, who had